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Vista del puente Severan desde el sureste



Gales del sudeste

Los señores de Tidenham poseían derechos de paso desde el siglo XII al XIX y construyeron pilares de piedra en 1825.

Los ferrocarriles provocaron la desaparición de los transbordadores, pero se reiniciaron en 1926 para atender el auge del tráfico motorizado.

Tim Ryan recuerda cómo los niños de la escuela corrían al río para vislumbrar estrellas como los Beatles y Tom Jones hasta que se inauguró el Puente Severn en 1966.

Tim Ryan recuerda los días de los viejos ferries del río Severn cerca de Chepstow

Bob Dylan fue capturado esperando en la terminal de Aust en mayo de 1966 por su fotógrafo de gira oficial Barry Feinstein en una de las imágenes de rock más famosas de la historia.

Fue un momento crucial en la carrera de Dylan: acababa de comenzar una gira por el Reino Unido en la que se estaba moviendo controvertidamente del folk al rock.

Estaba esperando para tomar el ferry en ruta a un concierto en el Capitol Theatre de Cardiff, después de haber sido abucheado en el Colston Hall en Bristol la noche anterior por tocar la guitarra eléctrica.

Una semana después, Dylan sería famoso como "Judas" por un fanático del folk descontento en el Free Trade Hall de Manchester.

Los tiempos también estaban cambiando para los transbordadores de Severn: apenas visible en el fondo de la fotografía de Feinstein está el Puente Severn casi terminado, que se inauguró tres meses después, en septiembre de 1966.

El puente causó la desaparición de los transbordadores, pero todavía se recuerdan con cariño, especialmente por los entusiastas dedicados a preservar los barcos restantes.

Bill francés
Ahora soy un anciano gruñón y estoy orgulloso de ello. Sin embargo, una vez fui joven y despreocupado y me gusta que algunas otras personas escriban sobre los transbordadores. Yo era el mismo que algunos de sus escritores, un residente de la escuela Sedbury Park que se convirtió en capitán de la escuela en mis últimos tres años allí. Como resultado, tuve más privilegios que la mayoría de los chicos. Mi mayor privilegio fue ir al ferry en Beachley los sábados y domingos y trabajar. Este fue un período de mi vida que dio forma a mi futuro. Recuerdo el Bristol Brabazon volando por encima y el aterrizaje forzoso del Bristol Britannia en las marismas del lado de Bristol del río. Creo que el nombre del piloto era Bill Pegg. De todos modos, trabajar con los transbordadores fue genial, al igual que las tripulaciones.

Eric Pugh de Hay-on-Wye
Mi mamá y mi papá, junto con mi futura esposa y yo hicimos un viaje en automóvil a Tintern en 1963. Visitamos el lugar del ferry en Beachley y tomé una película de 8 mm del viaje, incluida la carga y descarga del ferry.

Henry Barrow, Caerphilly
Mi único recuerdo perdurable del ferry es de 1953. Mi primo, George James, era mucho mayor que yo y tenía un Jaguar nuevo. Nos llevó a otro primo y a mí a Southampton para ver la Spithead Review. Al bajar del ferry por el lado inglés, probablemente luciendo un poco, "tocó fondo" el coche. Todavía puedo oírlo ahora. El escape fue un poco ruidoso todo el camino hasta nuestro destino y probablemente le costó unos pocos chelines arreglarlo. Sé que fue mucho más prudente al subir y bajar del ferry que regresaba a casa.

Precio de Bill, Tredegar
Estuve en la escuela aprobada por Sedbury Park 1954-55. Solían enviarme a trabajar al muelle del ferry, al lado de Aust y Beachley. Los dos transbordadores eran Severn King y Severn Queen. Solía ​​disfrutar trabajando allí y conocer gente diferente.

Les Davies, Abercynon
Yo también estaba en la escuela de Sedbury Park y trabajé en el muelle atrapando barqueros de cuerda que tiraban por el costado para sujetar una boya de hierro para que el ferry no se volviera a sacar. Tenía 14 chelines (70 peniques) un sábado de 1959/64.

Richard Jones, Torfaen
Cuando estaba en la escuela aprobada por Sedbury Park entre 1960 y 1963, ocasionalmente me enviaban al ferry para trabajar como ayudante de muelle. Todavía recuerdo esos días y nunca olvidaré al capitán Ben Brown del Severn Queen. He incluido esos momentos en un libro que he escrito.

Gary Watkins, Undy
Ben Brown era mi padre y siempre lo recuerdo contándome historias sobre sus días en los transbordadores. Me entristece que nunca viviera para contárselo a mis hijos.

Peter Sandrovitch
Ben Brown y Wesley Banfield quedarán en la memoria como dos personas encantadoras y amables que brindaron placer y honestidad a todos los que conocieron en los viajes a través del Severn en el ferry.

Paul Maher, Edimburgo
Viví en Bristol a finales de los 60 y principios de los 70. Cuando era joven solíamos jugar en la terminal de ferry abandonada y a lo largo del muelle. ¡Es sorprendente ver que parte de ella todavía está en pie!

Reg Woolley Nuneaton ex Port Talbot
Tengo algún lugar el horario del año pasado del Aust Ferry. Supongo que ahora vale mucho. Puedo recordar como un niño de cuatro años en su último año. ¡Le pedí a mi mamá y a mi papá mis botas de agua porque pensé que iba a tener que remar!

Peter Harrison, Gloucester
Vivía cerca de Bristol y cuando tenía 17 años, en 1958, mi primer trabajo fue en Barry. Usaba el ferry Aust todas las semanas con mi moto y casi siempre seguía recto como cuando terminaban de cargar los coches. Las bicicletas y las motocicletas se apretujaron entre ellos. Era un viaje largo y frío por Gloucester si perdía el barco, pero en esos días se podía poner una motocicleta en la furgoneta de mercancías y viajar en tren desde Pilning hasta Severn Tunnel Junction. ¡Siempre he preferido la emoción del ferry!

Ronald Jones, Folkestone, Kent
Durante la guerra, fui evacuado a Aberystwyth. Solo tenía 12 años y me enviaron a una escuela aprobada por Sedbury Park, no por nada serio, solo por una escuela floja. Al llegar a la edad de 14 años, se me permitió trabajar en los transbordadores en Beachley. Yo era el chico del muelle y, a veces, iba como chico de cubierta. Ahora tengo 76 años y guardo maravillosos recuerdos de la Reina de Severn y del Rey de Severn.

Mick Smith, Wexford, Irlanda
Viví en Bristol cuando era niño y mis abuelos con frecuencia nos llevaban a mí y a mi hermana a lo que quedaba del antiguo muelle del ferry. Siempre ha sido mi lugar favorito y cuando finalmente le pedí a mi esposa que se casara conmigo, ¡ahí fue donde lo hice!

Huw Rees de Cwmtwrch
Solía ​​ir de vacaciones a Cornualles a finales de los 50 y principios de los 60. Fue mucho más emocionante usar el ferry Aust que tener que ir a Gloucester y luego a Cornwall. Qué recuerdos.

Bob Richardson-Aitken
Mis padres vivían en Chepstow y, cuando estaba destinado en Warminster, solía usar el ferry en ambas direcciones los fines de semana. Los capitanes fueron Bill Groves, Ben Brown y el señor Palmer, cuyo nombre de pila no recuerdo. Ron Blight dirigía la taquilla. Las colas en el verano podrían extenderse hasta la playa donde estaba varado el William Ashburner.

Brian Powell, Hampshire
Habiendo nacido en Sedbury, recuerdo muy bien los ferries que salían de Beachley hacia Aust. También fui aprendiz en la escuela de aprendices durante 3 años. Es sorprendente que no llegaran más coches al Severn.

Steve Durnell, Port Talbot
Recuerdo que fui al zoológico de Bristol a mediados de los 60 y fue una aventura de todo el día. Un Vauxhall Velox de 1956 (SGW 52) que se averiaba al menos tres veces en el camino (¡en ambos sentidos!), Observando a los marineros tirando del tocadiscos, deteniéndose en Sylvia's en Llanmartin en el camino, Tizer pop, ¡papá haciendo su locura! Mamá es mamá (¡un diamante!) Y está en casa muy tarde esperando el día libre de la escuela mañana porque mamá no daría la alarma.

Ann Rees
Mi familia, 'Whitchurch', trabajó en el ferry Beachley Aust en 1854. John Whitchurch era un barquero y Robert Thomas era un barquero. ¿Alguien tiene alguna información sobre esto?

Colin Chapman, Hinckley
Pregunta de Re Ann Rees: El ferry Beachley-Aust se perdió por completo el 1 de septiembre de 1839: incluido el capitán Whitchurch y su hijo William, de 17 años. Lo mismo sucedió el 12 de marzo de 1844, el capitán, James Whitchurch, era hijo del capitán. perdido en 1839. Una tercera pérdida ocurrió el 30 de abril de 1855 pero no tengo detalles de la tripulación. En los tres casos, el barco se denominó & quotDespatch & quot.

Neil Whitchurch, Hereford
Mi familia trabajó en el ferry en el siglo XIX y principios del XX. El capitán Whitchurch al que se refiere Colin Chapman es casi con certeza mi tatarabuelo, William, que murió en 1839, a los 49 años, y fue enterrado en Aust Chapel. Viajé al muelle hace unos 10 años solo para echar un vistazo.

Ron Stokes
Vivo en Beachley Pier: trabajé como ayudante de muelle en Aust y Beachley hasta que me hice a la mar en 1958 a los 16 años.

Stephen Morgan, Uley, Gloucestershire
Tenía nueve años cuando me presentaron por primera vez a la Reina de Severn. Mi padre la había comprado cuando la pusieron fuera de servicio para usarla como equipo de perforación para la demolición del puente ferroviario de Severn en 1969. Tengo fotos de mí conduciéndola por el canal desde Gloucester Docks. Todavía tengo recuerdos vívidos de todo este evento, especialmente siendo capitán por un breve momento en la historia de este barco. Creo que quedó varada y destruida cuando bajó la marea durante la demolición del puente.

Rob Western de Middlesbrough
Desde 1958 hasta 1962, solía ir en bicicleta desde Henbury, Bristol a Lydney y regresar los domingos para visitar a familiares. El viaje tomó el ferry de Aust, lo que nos emocionó a los niños al ver los autos resbalar y deslizarse y los caprichos de la marea alta y baja. Si hacía mucho viento, nos empapamos a fondo en la proa del 'Severn Queen' o 'Severn Princess' y comíamos sándwiches y tiramos trozos de pan al río para ver la velocidad de la marea.

Dorian Willliams, Santa Rosa, California, Estados Unidos
A los 15 años viviendo en St Briavels durante 1941, algunos domingos iba en bicicleta a Hotwells en Bristol a través de Beachley Ferry. Recuerdo bien después de haber estado tan caliente de andar en bicicleta esperando el ferry y estar frío, camisa delgada, etc. Durante todo el viaje realmente sentí el frío. En el medio del canal, la distancia a cualquiera de las orillas me pareció mayor que la distancia de todo el tramo visto desde la orilla. Por cierto, una mañana vi el barco 'England's Glory' navegando por el Canal. Qué vista tan maravillosa.

Mike Saunders, Colchester, Essex
Cuando era un niño que vivía con mi abuelo Reg Saunders, fallecido en el taller de Hanbury, Chepstow, viajaba a Beachley Point. Después de un refresco y un panecillo en la cafetería del punto de cruce del ferry, viajaba todo el día, muy buenos recuerdos de los ferries de Severn.

Carol Adkinson (nee Ward) ahora en Suffolk
Nací en Bulwark, cerca de Chepstow, y el viaje en autobús a Beachley solía ser uno de los momentos más destacados de nuestro tiempo libre cuando era pequeña. Puedo recordar haber visto los transbordadores, y el viaje a través del río y de regreso fue realmente emocionante. Pero, aún más emocionante fue ver a los autos salir de los transbordadores. Fueron colocados en una ronda, tirados con cuerdas para mover todo el vehículo, de modo que el automóvil apuntó hacia la rampa y luego tuvo que alejarse. ¡Muchas veces vimos autos canguro cruzando el embarcadero, y colgando peligrosamente por el costado del embarcadero! Cuando la marea estaba alta, ¡esto era aún más peligroso! ¡Qué divertido para los niños pequeños, quizás no tanto para los afectados! También puedo recordar los picnics que tuvimos donde ahora están las torres de alta tensión. Y la vez que mi hermana Linda y yo fuimos "rescatados" por chicos de la Escuela de Aprendices de Beachley cuando estábamos en la playa y nos llevaron a "seguridad". Qué infancia tan maravillosa tuvimos, y espero que mis hijos tengan recuerdos tan felices de las vacaciones en Gales, como nosotros vivimos allí.

Mike Jones, Melbourne, Australia
Mi padre solía cuidar los tres transbordadores y sus motores. Cuando era niño, los fines de semana y las vacaciones escolares pasaba todo el día cruzando el río con Ben Brown, patrón del Severn Queen. Fueron días maravillosos.

Mike Lewis, Callington
Recuerdo haber hecho el cruce en mi motocicleta BSA de 350 cc en 1965. El & quot; extremo grande & quot se había ido en el motor entre Plymouth y Llantrisant. Tenía un amigo de la escuela en la parte de atrás y tuvimos que empujar la bicicleta fuera del ferry por el otro lado y subir por la rampa mojada y resbaladiza. Caímos dos veces antes de llegar a la cima. Llegué, justo, a familiares en Llantrisant y tuve que traer la bicicleta en tren. ¡Qué viaje!

Jackie Evans, West Midlands
Solía ​​tener miedo de ir en el ferry porque siempre pensé que nos hundiríamos. Solía ​​rezar para que los cancelaran debido al clima y que tuviéramos que conducir por el camino más largo alrededor de Chepstow.


Angelokastro es un castillo bizantino en la isla de Corfú. Se encuentra en la cima del pico más alto de la isla y en la costa noroeste cerca de Palaiokastritsa y está construido sobre un terreno particularmente escarpado y rocoso. Se encuentra a 305 m sobre un acantilado escarpado sobre el mar y contempla la ciudad de Corfú y las montañas de la Grecia continental al sureste y una amplia zona de Corfú hacia el noreste y noroeste.

Angelokastro es uno de los complejos fortificados más importantes de Corfú. Era una acrópolis que inspeccionaba la región hasta el sur del Adriático y presentaba un formidable punto estratégico para los ocupantes del castillo.

Angelokastro formó un triángulo defensivo con los castillos de Gardiki y Kassiopi, que cubrían las defensas de Corfú y cotas al sur, noroeste y noreste.

El castillo nunca cayó, a pesar de los frecuentes asedios e intentos de conquistarlo a lo largo de los siglos, y jugó un papel decisivo en la defensa de la isla contra las incursiones piratas y durante los tres asedios otomanos de Corfú, contribuyendo significativamente a su derrota.

Durante las invasiones ayudó a albergar a la población campesina local. Los aldeanos también lucharon contra los invasores jugando un papel activo en la defensa del castillo.

Se desconoce el período exacto de construcción del castillo, pero a menudo se ha atribuido a los reinados de Michael I Komnenos y su hijo Michael II Komnenos. La primera prueba documental de la fortaleza data de 1272, cuando Giordano di San Felice tomó posesión de ella para Carlos de Anjou, quien había arrebatado Corfú a Manfredo, rey de Sicilia en 1267.

Desde 1387 hasta finales del siglo XVI, Angelokastro fue la capital oficial de Corfú y la sede de la Provveditore Generale del Levante, gobernador de las islas Jónicas y comandante de la flota veneciana, que estaba estacionada en Corfú.

El gobernador del castillo (el castellano) normalmente era designado por el Ayuntamiento de Corfú y era elegido entre los nobles de la isla.

Angelokastro es considerado uno de los restos arquitectónicos más imponentes de las Islas Jónicas.


Río Severn

Nuestros editores revisarán lo que ha enviado y determinarán si deben revisar el artículo.

Río Severn, Galés Hafren, El río más largo de Gran Bretaña desde la fuente hasta las aguas de la marea: aproximadamente 180 millas (290 km) de largo, con el estuario del Severn agregando unas 40 millas (64 km) a su longitud total. El Severn nace cerca del río Wye en las laderas noreste de Plynlimon (galés: Pumlumon), Gales, y sigue un curso semicircular básicamente hacia el sur hasta el Canal de Bristol y el Océano Atlántico. Drena un área de 4,350 millas cuadradas (11,266 kilómetros cuadrados) con una descarga promedio en Bewdley de 2,170 pies cúbicos (61,5 metros cúbicos) por segundo.

El curso del río es al principio hacia el sureste, descendiendo desde una altura de 600 metros (2,000 pies) en su nacimiento hasta 150 metros (500 pies) en la ciudad galesa de Llanidloes. Allí gira bruscamente hacia el noreste, siguiendo el Valle de Powys más allá de Newtown y Welshpool. En Llanymynech, el río Vyrnwy se une al Severn: las cabeceras de los afluentes se represan para formar el embalse del lago Vyrnwy, que abastece de agua potable a Liverpool. El Severn ampliado gira hacia el este sobre una llanura en la que gira alrededor del casco antiguo de Shrewsbury. Originalmente, el río continuaba hacia el este para unirse al río Dee (que se origina en el norte de Gales y drena hacia el norte hasta el mar de Irlanda), pero su curso fue bloqueado por el hielo durante la época del Pleistoceno y sus aguas escaparon al sureste en Ironbridge. Este curso se mantuvo después de la desglaciación. La corriente que fluye rápidamente a través del desfiladero en Ironbridge fue importante para la industria del hierro temprana de Coalbrookdale. Continuando hacia el sur, el Severn recibe el río Stour en Stourport y pasa por Worcester, donde la catedral se encuentra en un acantilado que se eleva desde la empinada orilla izquierda del río. El río Teme entra desde el oeste por debajo de Worcester y el Avon desde el noreste en Tewkesbury, un centro de yates y lanchas a motor. En Gloucester, el Severn se convierte en marea y serpentea hacia el mar. La navegación es difícil en esta sección y está rodeada por un canal de navegación (inaugurado en 1827), que deja el estuario en Sharpness. Otros canales que se unen al río, uniéndolo con la región de Midlands de Inglaterra y con el río Támesis, están prácticamente en desuso.

El estuario se ensancha gradualmente entre el sur de Gales y Somerset y finalmente se convierte en el Canal de Bristol. Desde la destrucción del puente ferroviario entre Sharpness y Lydney a fines de la década de 1960, el tráfico ferroviario ha sido atendido por el túnel Severn, 15 millas (24 km) río abajo. El Severn Bridge, un impresionante puente colgante con un tramo principal de 3240 pies (990 metros), fue construido en la década de 1960 y forma parte de un enlace de autopista (M48) de Londres a Gales del Sur. Un aumento en el tráfico de automóviles llevó a la construcción del segundo cruce de Severn de 1,500 pies (456 metros) (rebautizado como Puente del Príncipe de Gales en 2018), que se inauguró en 1996 y lleva la autopista M4. La estación de energía atómica (inaugurada en 1962) en las llanuras de Berkeley utiliza agua de Severn para fines de refrigeración. El estuario del Severn tiene una marea notable, es decir, una ola causada por la marea entrante.

Los editores de Encyclopaedia Britannica Este artículo fue revisado y actualizado más recientemente por Jeff Wallenfeldt, Gerente de Geografía e Historia.


Contenido

The Wash hace una gran hendidura en la costa del este de Inglaterra que separa la costa curva de East Anglia de Lincolnshire. Es una bahía grande con tres lados aproximadamente rectos que se juntan en ángulos rectos, cada uno de aproximadamente 15 millas (25 km) de longitud. La costa este de Wash está enteramente dentro de Norfolk y se extiende desde un punto un poco al norte de Hunstanton en el norte hasta la desembocadura del río Great Ouse en King's Lynn en el sur. La costa opuesta, que es aproximadamente paralela a la costa este, se extiende desde Gibraltar Point hasta la desembocadura del río Welland, todo dentro de Lincolnshire. La costa sur corre aproximadamente de noroeste a sureste, conectando estas dos desembocaduras de ríos y está marcada por la desembocadura de un tercer río, el río Nene.

Tierra adentro desde Wash, la tierra es plana, baja y, a menudo, pantanosa: estos son los pantanos de Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire y Norfolk. Al este está el Mar del Norte.

Debido a los depósitos de sedimentos y la recuperación de tierras, la línea costera de Wash se ha alterado notablemente en tiempos históricos. Varias ciudades que alguna vez estuvieron en la costa de Wash (en particular King's Lynn) están ahora a cierta distancia tierra adentro. Gran parte del Wash es muy poco profundo, con varios bancos de arena grandes, como Breast Sand, Bulldog Sand, Roger Sand y Old South Sand, que están expuestos durante la marea baja, especialmente a lo largo de la costa sur. Por esta razón, la navegación en el Wash puede ser peligrosa. [11]

Dos canales de rutas marítimas comerciales conducen tierra adentro desde The Wash, el río Nene conduce al puente Port Sutton en Lincolnshire y más hacia el interior hasta el puerto de Wisbech en Cambridgeshire, y el río Great Ouse que conduce a King's Lynn Docks en Norfolk. Ambas rutas de envío tienen sus propias estaciones piloto marítimas para guiar y navegar los buques de carga entrantes y salientes en The Wash.

Una nueva encuesta de la costa de The Wash realizada por The Ordnance Survey en 2011 reveló que se habían creado unos 3.000 acres adicionales (12 km 2) en su costa por acreción desde las encuestas anteriores entre 1960 y 1980.

The Wash varía enormemente en la temperatura del agua durante todo el año. Las temperaturas invernales se acercan al punto de congelación debido a los fríos flujos del Mar del Norte. Las temperaturas del agua en verano pueden alcanzar los 20–23 ° C (68–73 ° F) después de una temperatura ambiente alta y solar prolongada. Este efecto, que suele ocurrir en las áreas poco profundas alrededor de las playas y, a menudo, solo en bolsas de agua, se ve exagerado por el gran alcance de la marea protegido.

Al final de la última glaciación, y mientras el nivel del mar seguía siendo más bajo que en la actualidad, los ríos Witham, Welland, Glen, Nene y Great Ouse se unieron en un gran río.

El profundo valle del Wash se formó, no por un río interglaciar, sino por el hielo de las etapas wolstoniana y devensiana que fluye hacia el sur por la ladera representada por la costa moderna y formando valles de túneles, de los cuales Silver Pit es uno de muchos. Este proceso le dio al Silver Pit su profundidad y estrechez. Cuando el valle del túnel quedó libre de hielo y agua de mar, fue ocupado por el río. Esto lo mantuvo libre de sedimentos, a diferencia de la mayoría de los valles de túneles. Dado que el mar lo inundó, el valle parece haberse mantenido abierto por la acción de las mareas. Durante la Etapa Ipswichiana, el río Wash probablemente fluyó a través del sitio del Silver Pit, pero el valle del túnel no se habría formado en esta etapa, ya que su alineación parece inconsistente.

The Wash está formado por extensas marismas, grandes bancos intermareales de arena y lodo, aguas poco profundas y canales profundos. A medida que la comprensión de la importancia de las marismas naturales ha aumentado en el siglo XXI, el malecón de Freiston se ha roto en tres lugares para aumentar el área de las marismas saladas, para proporcionar un hábitat adicional para las aves, en particular las limícolas, y como una inundación natural. medida de prevención. Los extensos arroyos de la marisma y la vegetación que allí crece ayudan a disipar la energía de las olas, mejorando así la protección de la tierra detrás de la marisma. Este es un ejemplo de la exploración reciente de las posibilidades de la gestión costera sostenible mediante la adopción de técnicas de ingeniería blanda, en lugar de diques y drenaje. El mismo esquema incluye un nuevo hábitat de laguna salobre.

En el lado este del Wash, en Hunstanton se encuentran acantilados bajos de tiza, con un notable estrato de tiza roja. Los pozos de grava (lagunas) que se encuentran en la reserva Snettisham RSPB son un lugar importante para los limícolas durante la marea alta. Esta Zona de Protección Especial (SPA) limita con la Zona de Protección Especial de la Costa Norte de Norfolk. Hacia el noroeste, el Wash se extiende hasta Gibraltar Point, otra ZEPA.

La naturaleza parcialmente confinada de los hábitats de Wash, combinada con amplios flujos de marea, permite que los mariscos se reproduzcan, especialmente camarones, berberechos y mejillones. Algunas aves acuáticas, como los ostreros, se alimentan de mariscos. También es una zona de cría para el charrán común y una zona de alimentación para los aguiluchos laguneros. Las aves migratorias como los gansos, los patos y las aves zancudas llegan al Wash en grandes cantidades para pasar el invierno, con un promedio total de alrededor de 400.000 aves presentes en un momento dado. [12] Se ha estimado que unos dos millones de aves al año utilizan el Lavado para alimentarse y descansar durante sus migraciones anuales.

En la Gran Bretaña romana, se construyeron terraplenes alrededor de los márgenes de Wash para proteger las tierras agrícolas de las inundaciones. Sin embargo, cayeron en mal estado después de la retirada romana en el 407 d.C.

Desde 865 hasta en algún momento alrededor de 1066, los vikingos utilizaron el Wash como una ruta principal para invadir East Anglia y el centro de Inglaterra. Los daneses se establecieron en Cambridge en 875. Antes del siglo XII, cuando los esfuerzos de drenaje y terraplenes dirigidos por monjes comenzaron a separar la tierra de las marismas estuarinas, el Wash era una parte de las mareas de The Fens que llegaba hasta Cambridge y Peterborough.

La población local opuso una feroz resistencia contra los normandos durante algún tiempo después de la conquista de 1066.

El nombre Wash puede haberse derivado del inglés antiguo wāse 'barro, limo, exudado'. La palabra Wasche se menciona en el diccionario popular Promptorium parvulorum (alrededor de 1440) como un agua o un vado (vadum). Una crónica nos cuenta que el rey Eduardo VI falleció los Wasshes cuando visitó la ciudad de King's Lynn en 1548. Para entonces, los documentos comenzaron a referirse a la Waashe o Wysche, pero solo para las arenas de marea y los bajíos de los ríos Welland y Nene. Los eruditos del siglo XVI identificaron al Wash como el Æstuarium Metuonis ("El estuario de la cosecha / la siega / el corte") mencionado por Ptolomeo en la época romana. Afirmaron que esta palabra todavía se usaba ocasionalmente. William Camden caracterizó Los lavados como "un brazo muy grande" del "Océano Alemán" (el Mar del Norte), "en cada marea y alta mar se cubre todo con agua, pero cuando el mar baja y la marea pasa, un hombre puede pasar sobre él como en tierra firme, pero no sin peligro ", como aprendió el rey Juan no sin su pérdida (ver más abajo). Inspirado por el relato de Camden, William Shakespeare mencionó el Lincolne-Washes en su obra de teatro Rey juan (1616). Durante los siglos XVII y XVIII, el nombre Wash pasó a ser utilizado para el propio estuario.

Los trabajos de drenaje y recuperación alrededor del Wash continuaron hasta la década de 1970. Grandes áreas de marisma fueron cerradas progresivamente por bancos y convertidas en tierras agrícolas. El Wash está ahora rodeado por defensas marinas artificiales en los tres lados terrestres. En la década de 1970, se construyeron dos grandes bancos circulares en el área de Terrington Marsh del Wash, como parte de un intento fallido de convertir todo el estuario en un depósito de agua dulce. El plan fracasó, sobre todo porque las orillas se construyeron con lodo dragado de la marisma, que salinó el agua dulce almacenada allí.

Liga Hanseática Editar

Desde el siglo XIII, la ciudad comercial y el puerto marítimo de Bishop's Lynn se convirtió en el primer depósito comercial miembro (Kontor) en el Reino de Inglaterra de la Liga Hanseática de puertos. Durante el siglo XIV, Lynn se clasificó como el puerto más importante de Inglaterra, cuando el comercio marítimo con Europa estaba dominado por la Liga. Todavía conserva dos almacenes medievales de la Liga Hanseática: Hanse House construida en 1475 y Marriott's Warehouse.

El rey Juan y sus joyas Editar

Se dice que el rey Juan de Inglaterra perdió algunas de sus joyas en el Wash en 1216. [13] Según informes contemporáneos, John viajó desde Spalding, Lincolnshire, a Bishop's Lynn, Norfolk, pero enfermó y decidió regresar. Mientras tomaba la ruta más larga a través de Wisbech, envió su tren de equipaje a lo largo de la calzada y vadeó a través de la desembocadura del Wellstream, una ruta utilizable solo durante la marea baja. En su caso, los carros tirados por caballos se movían demasiado lentamente para la marea entrante y muchos se perdieron. [14] Sin embargo, los eruditos no pueden ponerse de acuerdo sobre si las joyas del rey estaban dentro del tren de equipaje, [15] ya que hay evidencia de que sus insignias estaban intactas después del viaje. [dieciséis]

Se dijo que el accidente ocurrió en algún lugar cerca del puente Sutton en el río Nene. El nombre del río cambió como resultado de la redirección del Gran Ouse en el siglo XVII. Bishop's Lynn pasó a llamarse King's Lynn en el siglo XVI como resultado del establecimiento de la Iglesia de Inglaterra por parte del rey Enrique VIII.

John pudo haber dejado sus joyas en Lynn como garantía de un préstamo y arreglar su "pérdida". Pero eso se considera un relato apócrifo. Se registró que se quedó la noche siguiente, del 12 al 13 de octubre de 1216, en Swineshead Abbey, se trasladó a Newark-on-Trent y murió a causa de su enfermedad el 19 de octubre. [17]

Un área de peligro de alcance de armas del Ministerio de Defensa se encuentra a lo largo de una pequeña región de la costa de The Wash, reservada para la Royal Air Force, el Army Air Corps y el entrenamiento de bombardeo y armas aéreas aliados de la OTAN: RAF Holbeach, activo desde 1926, fue históricamente originalmente parte de la antigua estación de la RAF Sutton Bridge. Otro campo de entrenamiento con armas de aire ubicado en The Wash, RAF Wainfleet, que opera desde 1938, fue dado de baja en 2010.

Navegar desde el sur de Lincolnshire Fens hacia el Wash (especialmente para la pesca de mariscos) se conoce tradicionalmente localmente como "ir por debajo". Se desconoce el origen de la frase. [18]

St Botolph's, la iglesia parroquial de Boston (apodada Boston Stump) es un hito de Lincolnshire. Se puede ver en días despejados desde el lado Norfolk del Wash. El Outer Trial Bank, un remanente de un experimento de la década de 1970, se encuentra a unas 2 millas (3,2 km) de la costa de Lincolnshire, cerca del río Nene.

En 1934 se hizo una propuesta, apoyada por el piloto de carreras Malcolm Campbell, para construir una pista de carreras de 15 millas de largo (24 km) en tierras recuperadas desde Boston hasta Gibraltar Point, cerca de Skegness. Se habría utilizado como camino a Skegness cuando no había carreras. También iba a haber un lago largo para carreras de botes dentro del circuito de la pista. Las dificultades financieras de la década de 1930 impidieron que el proyecto prosiguiera.


Contenido

Orígenes Editar

El ferrocarril de Baltimore y Annapolis fue fletado en 1880 por un grupo de promotores de Nueva Inglaterra como el Línea corta de Annapolis y Baltimore y comenzó a funcionar en marzo de 1887. [1] Esta línea de carga y pasajeros era un enlace integral entre Annapolis y Baltimore, transportando casi dos millones de pasajeros por año hasta que la competencia de las carreteras cercanas forzó el cierre de los ferrocarriles. [2] Fue el segundo ferrocarril que sirvió a Annapolis y proporcionó una conexión más rápida a Baltimore, tomando un camino más directo a lo largo de la costa norte del río Severn y luego cruzando el río hacia Annapolis. El ferrocarril transformó las orillas del Severn, una vez aisladas, en una serie de comunidades suburbanas. [3]

El ferrocarril comenzó como una línea a vapor que partía de Bladen Street en Annapolis, cruzaba el ancho estuario del río Severn sobre un largo caballete de madera y llegaba a Clifford en la línea B & ampO, donde usaba las vías B & ampO para terminar en Camden Station en Baltimore. Debido a que la línea corta A & ampB creó una línea casi recta al sureste de Baltimore, arrebató gran parte del comercio Baltimore-Annapolis lejos del ferrocarril de Annapolis, Washington y Baltimore en el que los pasajeros tenían que cambiar de tren en Annapolis Junction. [4]

En algún momento antes de 1892, se construyó una pequeña línea de conexión entre A & ampB y AW & ampB en la estrella de Bay Ridge Junction, donde AW & ampB se unía con Annapolis y Bay Ridge Railroad.

Reorganización Editar

El negocio fue escaso en los primeros años, y en 1893 el ferrocarril se vendió a George Burnham Jr. y se reorganizó como el Baltimore y Annapolis Short Line el próximo año. Universalmente se llamó simplemente "La línea corta de Annapolis". [1]

Modernización Editar

La línea fue electrificada en 1908 y cambió su nombre por el Compañía de ferrocarriles eléctricos de Maryland, brindando un servicio limpio, cómodo, más rápido y más frecuente. [1] A diferencia de la mayoría de los ferrocarriles eléctricos de su tiempo, que empleaban una electrificación de corriente continua de bajo voltaje, la línea instaló un sistema de electrificación de corriente alterna monofásico de 6.600 voltios y 25 ciclos desarrollado recientemente por Westinghouse Electric & amp Manufacturing Company. Sin embargo, el pionero sistema de CA no tuvo mucho éxito y, en 1914, los nuevos propietarios cambiaron a CC. [5] Cuando lo hizo, el B & ampO desconfió de una línea aérea de alto voltaje sobre sus vías entre el intercambio de Clifford y Camden Station. (Tanto WB & ampA como Short Line utilizaron 3300v AC) Entonces, B & ampO construyó una nueva línea para la Short Line entre Cliffords y su línea principal en Russell Street, paralelamente al ramal de South Baltimore a través de Westport. Esta línea corría inmediatamente al oeste / sur de las ramas Curtis Bay y South Baltimore, pasando por debajo de la rama Curtis Bay a lo largo del camino.

Compra Editar

Durante su apogeo, los años entre 1918 y finales de la década de 1920, el B & ampA transportó hasta 1.750.000 pasajeros por año entre Baltimore y Annapolis. Los trenes salen cada hora desde las 6 am hasta las 11 pm (durante las horas pico, los trenes salen cada 30 minutos). [6] Debido a su sólido desempeño, el vecino WB & ampA compró Annapolis Short Line en 1921 [7] y se convirtió en parte del sistema WB & ampA en el que se llamó Línea North Shore. Posteriormente, los trenes de Short Line se enrutaron sobre WB & ampA entre Linthicum y la nueva terminal de Baltimore de WB & ampA en la esquina de Howard & amp Lombard Streets, ahora el sitio de un Holiday Inn. [1] Al mismo tiempo, la mayor parte de la antigua vía Short Line entre Linthicum y Westport fue abandonada, excepto una sección entre Baltimore Highlands y el intercambio B & ampO Cliffords que se mantuvo para manejar el flete hacia y desde el B & ampO. El "nuevo" (construido por B & ampO) Annapolis Short Line ROW entre Cliffords y Westport también se retuvo para el intercambio de carga, aunque este segmento se abandonó más tarde en 1979

Emergencia de la quiebra Editar

Los ingresos brutos del WB & ampA comenzaron a disminuir casi tan pronto como compró el B & ampA en 1921. Durante la década siguiente, el WB & ampA solo sobrevivió gracias a una ley que lo eximía de impuestos. En enero de 1931, la extensión de la ley no se aprobó por un voto y la línea entró en suspensión de pagos. [8] La línea permaneció en funcionamiento durante cuatro años más hasta que cesó oficialmente el 20 de agosto de 1935. El WB & ampA se vendió en una subasta pública y los comerciantes de chatarra compraron la mayor parte del material rodante. El derecho de paso y algunos equipos fueron comprados por la Sociedad Protectora de Tenedores de Bonos que luego formó la Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Baltimore y Annapolis. Esta empresa negoció un acuerdo con B & ampO para utilizar Camden Station como su terminal de Baltimore. La nueva empresa asumió el control el 21 de agosto de 1935 para su funcionamiento continuo. [9] La compañía también entró en el negocio de los autobuses de motor, y más tarde sirvió a Fort Meade desde Baltimore y Annapolis, además de otros puntos a los que no llegaban sus rieles. [1]

Segunda Guerra Mundial Editar

Con el inicio de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y el racionamiento del gas, el B & ampA a menudo funcionaba con todo el equipo disponible en servicio. At semester breaks, holidays and graduation times the trains were packed with midshipmen from the United States Naval Academy, and the B&O ran steam trains to pick up teams and supporters to transport them to Philadelphia for the Army-Navy games. The B&A typically ran 5- and 6-car trains between Baltimore and Glen Burnie, with 3-cars continuing on the additional 20 miles (32 km) to Annapolis. [10]

End of the Line Edit

Following World War II, gasoline and cars came back. By 1949, the B&A offered scheduled commuter bus service between Baltimore, Glen Burnie, and Annapolis, along with its passenger rail service, and reported an operating deficit of $100,000 on an annualized basis. [10] A proposal for the line to be acquired by the B&O Railroad for freight service was discarded when the B&O's studies concluded it would require $1.35 million in infrastructure improvements to bring it up to Class 1 railroad standards. [10] By June, 1949, the developer of a new housing community near Glen Burnie complained in Architectural Forum magazine that the rumored discontinuation of "rail rapid transit" was adversely affecting sales to buyers, "who don't want to ride busses on congested streets". [11]

At a hearing in November 1949, the Maryland Public Service Commission reported "The rails are worn and would have to be replaced if passenger service is continued the cars and trains are antiquated, decrepit, and unattractive means of travel schedules are slow, and there is no inducement, save that of necessity, for anyone to travel the area by rail. While not yet dead, it is moribund”. The B&A substituted buses for rail service on February 5, 1950, the B&A Short Line made its final passenger run. [6] The electric wires were removed, but the railroad remained intact for diesel-operated freight service. [1] The B&A purchased a diesel that remained in freight service to Annapolis until June 1968 when the Severn River Trestle was embargoed.

The freight was now terminated at Jones Station where Annapolis Lumber and Supply Company sent trucks to collect freight. At this time, the Naval Academy converted their power and heating systems from coal to oil. By the early 1970s, all that remained in service was a six-mile (10 km) stub to Glen Burnie. The remaining B&A rail freight service ended in 1986. [12]

The Baltimore & Annapolis Railroad's public bus system was absorbed by Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) in 1973 as Route 14. The company continued as a charter bus service using motorcoaches into the mid-1980s, but eventually ceased service. [1]

In 1981, Anne Arundel County purchased a section of the 66-foot (20 m) wide right of way from Dorsey Road in Glen Burnie to the north shore of the Severn River for the purpose of creating the Baltimore & Annapolis Trail and park. [13] The remaining line north of Glen Burnie was shut down in the early 1980s and sold to the State of Maryland in 1991 to serve as the southern leg of the light rail system. [14] In 1986, B&A number 50 was donated to the B&O Railroad Museum. [12]

Rebirth Edit

In 1990, the southern portion of the right-of-way was reborn as the Baltimore & Annapolis Rail Trail. In June 1993, light rail began running on the northern portion between Baltimore and Cromwell station in Glen Burnie. [1]

On February 9, 1995, the Baltimore and Annapolis Railroad Company, by that time merely an entity on paper, filed to acquire and operate approximately 75.9 miles of rail line from the Mid Atlantic Railroad, which operated track between Mullin's, SC and Whiteville NC, and between Chadbourn, NC and Conway, SC. [15] The filing also noted that the B&A had not owned any rail lines since May 1991, when the state of Maryland took its last right of way through a condemnation proceeding to build a light rail line. This line was operated under the name Carolina Southern Railroad (reporting marks CALA). All public business outside of federal railroad filings were performed under the auspices of the CALA. In June of 2001, the Waccamaw Coast Line Railroad (WCLR), a new division of the B&A, filed to operate 14.1 miles of railroad owned by Horry County, SC between the current terminus of the CALA in Conway, SC and the city of Myrtle Beach, SC where the line ended. [16] The WCLR had operated under the direct ownership of the county prior to its ownership by the B&A. The right of way continued to be owned by the county and was initially leased to the B&A for a period of 30 years.


Severn Bridge walk

Severn Services (M48 J1) in England, BS35 4BH : 2 hours free parking (not enough time to do the entire walk). Or try BS35 4BG, and walk along the maintainence access road to the bridge.

Thornwell (M48 J2) in Wales, NP16 5GH : free on street parking

It is now free for cars to cross the bridge - the toll has been abolished.

This is an international walk, from England to Wales, over the grade I listed (old, M48) Severn Bridge, with views throughout over the Severn Estuary which divides England and Wales.

The walk is unusual but spectacular, with a motorway on 1 side, and an amazing view on the other. Would be great to break up a long journet to/from South Wales.

The 2.5 mile long River Severn suspension bridge is high over the Severn Estuary. It has walk/cycle paths on either side. Walk out on one side of the bridge, back on the other.

Starting in England, at the Motorway Services, follow the way/cycle path onto the bridge, and walk to Wales. In Wales, follow the steps down, and walk through a tunnel under the motorway, very briefly joining the Wales Coast Path (or turn right, north for Thornwell). Then back up onto the bridge, and walk back to England. Cross over the former toll booth bridge back to the Services and the start.

If you fancy company, there is a Severn Bridge Parkrun every Saturday @ 9am which starts from the Welsh side (but it turns back early as its 5km, not 5 miles)

Severn Bridge services on the England side (not cheap).

The first Severn Estuary crossing was the 1886 Severn rail tunnel on the Paddington - South Wales mainline. It was the world's longest underwater tunnel for over 100 years. From 1924, until the opening of the Severn Bridge, a car shuttle operated. The tunnel has a very corrosive atmosphere with diesel fumes and humidity - the track has to be replaced every 6 years. The tunnel suffers from water infiltration - nearby springs - large pumps have run continuously since it was opened to pump water out.

The 1966 Severn Bridge (this walk's bridge) carried the 4 lane M4 Motorway, and 2 walk/cycle paths. As of Jan-20, it has the world's 43rd longest span (between the towers distance). The motorway has been renamed the M48.

The 1996 Second Severn Crossing (now the Prince of Wales Bridge) carries the 6 lane M4 motorway was built to replace the original which was approaching full capacity, and needed weight limits due to corrosion. It does not have footpaths. Due to its design, it can stay open in windier weather than the original. It is downstream of the first bridge, and has a shorter route.

When the new bridge opened, the M4 motorway was diverted over it. The motorway over the old bridge was renamed the M48. Its usually fairly quiet.

The bridge consists of 4 structures, from west to east: (River) Wye Bridge, Beachley (peninsular) Viaduct, (River) Severn Bridge, Aust Viaduct

The Severn Bridge Services isn't the original building on the cliff edge with a view, but a new inland building closer to the Junction without a view.

The toll over both bridges was removed in 2018

After the walk, we would love to get your feedback

You can upload photos to the SWC Group on Flickr (upload your photos) and videos to Youtube. This walk's tags are:


View of the Severan Bridge from the Southeast - History

The following essays summarize and add to the work published in PM 1960, AG 1980, and Reynolds 1996.
Click here for information on how to cite from this text.

Carved in the beginning of the 3rd cent. CE, the large marble plan of Rome (variously referred to as the Severan Marble Plan, the Forma Urbis Romae [FUR], the Pianta Marmorea [PM], or as the Forma Urbis Marmorea [FUM]) depicted in astounding detail the ground plan of all architectural features in the ancient city. The map (measuring ca. 18.10 x 13 meters or ca. 60 x 43 feet) was incised onto marble slabs that hung on a wall of a grand room (aula) in the Templum Pacis in Rome. Time, and the need for marble as a building material, gradually destroyed the Plan. Today, only 1,186 pieces, or 10-15%, of this gargantuan city map exist.

DATE OF THE PLAN

Textual sources tell of a disastrous fire in the Templum Pacis in 192 CE (Cass. Dio 72.24.1-2). Various pieces of evidence suggest that the building was repaired under Septimius Severus (193-211 CE). According to a close study done by L. Cozza, much of the brickwork on the wall on which the Plan was mounted is Severan (PM 1960, p. 177). This date agrees with the absence of any post-Severan monuments on the surviving fragments the letters inscribed on the Plan also comfortably fit this date.

Two pieces of evidence carved onto the Plan itself narrow down the date of its creation to the years between 203 and 211 CE. First, the Septizodium, visible on fragments 8a and 8bde, provides us with a terminus post quem. This monument was built by Septimius Severus in 203 CE (CIL VI, 1032) its presence indicates that the Plan was carved after that date. Second, an inscription on fragment 5abcd provides a terminus ante quem. This inscription mentions Septimius Severus and his son Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla) as co-emperors. This was true between 198 CE, when Caracalla was created Augustus to rule alongside his father, and Feb. 4, 211 CE, when Septimius died.

The commonly favored date of the Plan's creation is therefore 203-211 CE. Perhaps significantly, the inscription on fragment 5a does not mention Septimius' younger son Geta, made Augustus in 209 and assassinated by his brother in 212. This may mean that the Plan was carved before 209 CE, but there may also be other explanations for his absence. G. Carettoni's suggestion that the Plan was created between 205-208 CE, when the office of urban prefect was reorganized by Severus, has not met with wide acceptance (PM 1960, pp. 215-217).

There is an unresolved controversy about whether one or more monumental plans of Rome existed before the Severan map, and what the relationship of the Severan map might have been to any predecessors. For an introduction to the issues, see Reynolds 1996, pp. 53-59, and Steinby 1989, pp. 32-33.

CONSTRUCTING THE PLAN

FUNCTION OF THE PLAN

Most scholars believe that the aula in which the map hung was the office of the urban prefect, and that the map had a utilitarian purpose, functioning either as a locator map or as a cadastral map (recording land ownership) of Rome. They base their arguments on the incredible detail and accuracy of the map, which must have been the result of real land surveys, and on the scale of 1:240 which is the common scale used in Roman map making.

David Reynolds (1997, pp. 115-123), however, has demonstrated that the Plan could not have functioned as a locator map. It was, first of all, too large to be consulted. Someone standing on the floor in front of it would not have been able to make out the details at top, more than 40 feet up the wall. It would furthermore have been useless as such because only a small percentage of its features were labeled with inscriptions to guide the viewer. It finally lacked measurement notations that are common in other known Roman maps. The theory that the map was of cadastral use must also be discarded, according to Reynolds. Unlike the few known Roman cadastral maps of stone, the Severan plan delineated walls with single lines (as opposed to double outlines) and it lacked ownership annotations. Furthermore, despite the astonishing accuracy of the Plan, there are sloppy mistakes in the carving of some of the most prominent public buildings on the map, mistakes that would not have been acceptable if the Plan indeed served the purpose of ownership record, a function for which precision would have been important.

Reynolds convincingly argues (1997, pp. 124-134) that the Severan Marble Plan, rather than serving a utilitarian purpose, was a decorative showpiece. He suggests that there were dos Formae Urbis Romae, and that both were kept in the aula of the Templum Pacis, which he agrees functioned as the cadastral record office in Rome. According to Reynolds, one plan was the official cadastral record of Rome. This map would have consisted of sheets of papyrus on which the precise information from a detailed land survey of Rome was recorded on a scale of 1:240, complete with annotations of landownership and measurements. The scrolls would have been easily accessible, readable, and updatable. The other Forma Urbis Romae was the marble plan, whose sole purpose was to decorate a wall in the room that was devoted to the storage and use of the real cadastral records. The marble plan was created by copying the information from the offical records onto the marble slabs.

Reynold's thesis clarifies why the Plan adhered to some map making conventions but dispensed with others. The Plan was detailed, accurate, and of a common scale because it was copied from cadastral records that were based on precise surveys of the city of Rome. However, because the map was decorative only, and would not be consulted for detailed and accurate information, carving mistakes were allowed to stand, and measurements and annotations were left out because such information was unneccessary. Such detailed script would have been unreadable from a distance anyways, and it would have made the delicate web of carving seem complicated and cramped. Only a few of the major public monuments were made to stand out with with large inscriptions and doubly outlined walls. These perhaps served as orienting indicators for anybody trying to single out, from a distance, well-known features on the large marble map.


10 Really Ancient Bridges That Are Still Being Used Up to This Day

Ancient structures such as The Colosseum, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and even the Pyramids of Giza are more than just tourist destinations – they are living proof of the colorful history that we have. But what about ancient structures that have been built hundreds of years ago that aren’t exactly places where tourists would flock to see but are still being used today?

Early bridges aren’t exactly tourist destinations, yet they happen to maintain their original use. Built to last, these structures have stood the test of time and the wear and tear that accompanies it, and have helped build communities and save lives as it survived hundreds of years.

Let us look at a few examples:

10. Pons Fabricius

Built by Lucius Fabricius in 62 BC, the Pons Fabricius is one of best Roman structures that will show you the unmatched building techniques of the Romans even after thousands of years.

9. Ponte Vecchio

Found in Florence, Italy, the Ponte Vecchio bridge was built in 1345. It was constructed to replace an old, wooden bridge that didn’t stand floods. Ponte Vecchio contained an arcade of shops that is still used up to this day.

8. Ponte di Rialto

Built in 191, the Ponte di Rialto was constructed to replace an old wooden one by Antonio da Ponte. He had stiff competition in master artists Michelangelo and Palladio. The bridge was both praised and criticized because people felt it was “top-heavy and ungraceful” just like the Eiffel Tower.

7. Khaju Bridge

Shah Abbas II had the Khaju Bridge constructed on top of one another. It was used to act as a dam and allowed people to cross the Zayandeh River. However, the main use of this bridge was for socials. To this day, the Khaju has quite an impressive array of magnificent paintings and tiles and a pavilion was built in the middle to appreciate the scenery. Now, the pavilion is used as a tea house and art gallery.

6. Shaharah Bridge

The Shaharah Bridge is found in the country of Yemen and is also called the “Bridge of Sighs.” It was built in the 17th century for the main purpose of connecting the mountains of Jabal al Emir and Jabal al Faish. Shaharah Bridge spans a 650-feet canyon.

5. Cendere Bridge

Also known as the Severan Bridge, the Cendere Bridge was built in the second century by four Kommagenean cities in Turkey with the objective to honor the Roman emperor Septimus Severus and his family. It holds the title as the second longest arched bridge that was built by the Romans.

4. Anji Bridge

Built in 605 AD, the Anji Bridge or the Zhaozhao Bridge is the oldest one in China. The name of the bridge is translated as “Safe Crossing Bridge.” When it was constructed, it was considered as technically advanced as it had the largest arc. The Anji Bridge has received numerous recognitions from different award giving bodies.

3. Ponte Sant’Angelo

Also known as the Bridge of the Holy Angel, Ponte Sant’Angelo was built in 136 AD by Emperor Hadrian. It is one of the most famous bridges in Rome because of its beauty.

2. Tarr Steps

It is hard to tell when the Tarr Steps was built, but there are guesses that it could have been between 3000 BC to the medieval times. The Tarr Steps is an example of a clapper bridge, a type of bridge that is made out of rocks that rest atop each other. There is an urban legend that this bridge was built by the devil.

1. Arkadiko Bridge

Located in Greece, the Arkadiko bridge is the oldest surviving arch bridge that is still being used to this day. The bridge is said to have been built in the Greek Bronze Age and is made purely of limestone boulders with no bonding agent. Arkadiko Bridge was part of a military road system back then.


Photo Galleries and Videos: Hamlet Bridge

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The Early History of the Fort Knox Area

The initial Euro-American entry into the Fort Knox area is uncertain, but by the last quarter of the 18th century, numerous hunters, surveyors, explorers and fortune seekers had traversed that part of Kentucky. By that time, such well-known pioneers as Thomas Bullitt, Michael Stoner, and Daniel and Squire Boone had been active in the area.

The earliest known attempt to settle this area took place in July 1776, when a group known as Share, Sweeney and company, led by Samuel Pearman, traveled by flatboat to the mouth of the Salt River. Pearman and his companions laid claim to several thousand acres along the Ohio and Salt rivers. They built a small log cabin at the junction of the Salt and Rolling Fork rivers, but numerous Indian attacks forced them to retreat to Virginia. Settlement attempts were not abandoned, however, and the next few years saw continued efforts to establish permanent settlements.

Louisville was surveyed as early as 1773, but no settlement took place there until 1778, when an encampment was built on Corn Island in the Ohio River. By the following year, the salt licks to the south of Louisville were being exploited. The earliest and most important of these was Bullitt’s Lick (also known as Saltsburg), which was near the northeastern boundary of Fort Knox.

In that same year, Brashear’s Station (also known as Froman’s Station and Salt River Garrison) was established just below the mouth of Floyd’s Fork. Continued Indian raids forced the closing of the salt works. By 1780 it was once again in operation, this time defended by the Mud Garrison, constructed of a double row of piles filled with dirt and gravel, and located on the north bank of the Salt River about 1/2 mile above the mouth of Bullitt’s Lick Run. This renewed attempt at settlement was joined by the establishment of Dowdall’s Station, on the north bank of Salt River at a pool just above the river’s falls (near present-day Shepherdsville).

Meanwhile, efforts were being made further west to establish permanent settlements.

John Severns, a surveyor, had entered the country and established a homestead in an area later known as Severn’s Valley. A large party of settlers including Jacob Van Meter, Samuel Haycraft and Capt. John Vertrees joined him later in that year. Although many of the settlers returned home to Pennsylvania following an extremely severe winter, Haycraft and Col. Andrew Haynes stayed to build stations in the valley. Capt. Thomas Helm, who also built a station, later joined them. These three stations or forts formed a triangle, the interior of which later became Elizabethtown.

A portion of the major road known as the Cumberland-Ohio Falls Trail developed between the Severn’s Valley settlement (present-day Elizabethtown) and Louisville via Bullitt’s Lick. An optional course north of Severn’s Valley led to the mouth of the Salt River, following roughly the route of the present-day Dixie Highway. These roads, along with the Salt and Rolling Fork rivers, provided major avenues of transportation and helped open the area for further settlement. They also provided paths through the Muldraugh Escarpment, a previous deterrent to travel.

Squire Boone claimed title to the land around Doe Run in 1786. The community that sprang up in this area was known as Little York, Virginia, as Kentucky was still a county of Virginia. Little York became the county seat of Meade County for a short period.

Other settlements were established in Hill Grove, Stith’s Valley and along Doe Run and Otter Creek around 1784. These settlements were small, fortified family establishments. By 1789, and into the 1790s, Revolutionary War veterans with military land grants settled the West Point area. Among these early settlers were Thomas and Samuel Pearman, Henry Ditto, George Ball, Isaac Vertrees, Joseph Enlan, William Withers, John Hay, Thomas Barbour and John Campbell. Fort Knox now encompasses large portions of these original grants.

LINCOLN FAMILY FARM ESTABLISHED IN RADCLIFF-FORT KNOX AREA

The Mill Creek and Cedar Creek valleys were also settled around this time. A Baptist church was erected in the Mill Creek area in 1783. It was here that President Abraham Lincoln’s family carved out a home. In 1803, Thomas Lincoln (the president’s father) purchased a 238-acre farm near the southern boundary of present-day Radcliff-Fort Knox on Battle Training Road. Thomas brought his mother, Bersheba (or Bathsheba), his sister and her husband to live there. Thomas moved away to present-day LaRue County, along Knob Creek, from 1807 to 1816 before departing to Indiana. Bersheba remained in the Mill Creek community until her death in 1833 and is buried in the old Mill Creek Cemetery (now the Lincoln Memorial Cemetery). She was the first of the family buried in that consecrated ground. Nancy Brumfield, aunt of the president, her husband, William Brumfield, and their daughter, Mary Crume, complete the three generations of Lincoln buried side-by-side.

EARLY SETTLEMENTS TAKE FORM IN 1790S

By the 1790s, settlements began to take on more formal characteristics. In 1792, Kentucky became a state and Hardin County was formed from Nelson County.

The Salt River had become an extremely important means of transportation for flatboat trade three inspection stations were established to check cargoes of tobacco, timber, flour, hemp and farm produce. These stations were at Taylorsville, Shepherdsville and a 1/2 mile below the mouth of Long Lick Creek, the latter very near or just within the present boundaries of Fort Knox. River commerce clearly played an important role in developing the early settlement pattern of the Fort Knox area, particularly in Bullitt and Hardin counties.

Most settlements before 1800 were located on major rivers or streams. Elizabethtown was officially incorporated and named in 1796. Garnettsville was established in 1792 on Otter Creek. Shepherdsville was officially incorporated in 1793. Sometime before 1794, a settlement known as Bealsburg apparently was established on Pitts Point at the junction of the Salt and Rolling Fork rivers. West Point was formally laid out in 1796.

AGRICULTURE, TIMBER AND SALT — MAINSTAYS OF AREA ECONOMY

During early settlement, the major economic pursuits were agricultural production, timber cutting and salt making. The latter had a particularly interesting and colorful history, as well as being extremely important to the rest of Kentucky. Salt (used mainly as a preservative for game, which was the principal source of food) was a necessary and valuable commodity during the early historical period.

The Revolutionary War with Great Britain cut off normal sources of salt and the mountains acted as a barrier to practical, cost-effective transport of salt into the frontier. When Bullitt’s Lick was established in 1779, it was the first commercial salt works in Kentucky and the only one west of the Alleghenies during the remainder of the Revolution. After the war, Bullitt’s Lick and other salt works in the area were the main suppliers of salt for many years.

Nowhere else was there such a concentration of wells and furnaces. The industry also provided an impetus for support services such as timber cutting, cooperage, carpentry and other necessary trades. Eventually, however, salt making became unprofitable, as steamboats brought cheap imported salt by 1830, all the salt works had closed.

In the early part of the 19th century, Shepherdsville, Louisville, West Point, Graniteville and Elizabethtown figured prominently in the settlement pattern with nuclear family farmsteads being scattered around these points. As the Indian threats abated, it became safe for a wider dispersal of individual farmsteads, but the necessity remained for the maintenance of a tie to some larger town for specialized goods and services.

Not all settled areas identified strongly with a particular town. Some, such as Hill Creek, Cedar Creek, Smith’s Valley, Doe Run and Otter Creek settlements, were concentrated within a particular valley. This was particularly true in the area that in 1823 became Meade County. It had very few incorporated towns in 1800 but numerous clustered settlements.

As the century wore on, however, more towns were established in response to population increase and a greater need arose for goods and services not produced on farms. Additionally, people occupying a particular area often referred to it informally by a specific name. These unofficial settlements usually centered on a store, church or a school.

In many cases, these “settlements” provided the day-to-day needs, and the larger towns provided more specialized professional services and merchandise. Examples of such settlements in the Fort Knox area included Pleasant View, Bloomington, Pine Tavern, Bartles, Shady Grove and Steel’s Crossroads.

The average landowner in the Fort Knox area during the 19th century was a small-scale agriculturalist. Not as common but also present were larger-scale planters who occupied large floodplain areas mainly along the Salt, Rolling Fork and Ohio rivers. These operations were similar to the plantations of the Deep South and probably accounted for most of the slave population in the area.

Kentucky, as a whole, did not account for a large proportion of slaves in the Southern states. The percentage of slaves in Kentucky was only 24.73 percent in 1830 and declined to 19.5 percent by 1860. The average Kentuckian in 1860 did not own any slaves, and the average slaveholder owned less than 10.

Staple crops were corn and tobacco, but hay and wheat were also grown. Bullitt County also produced some barley.

The differences between the small farmer and the planter were not limited to the size of their farms. An important and early business was milling. Most of the successfully operated mills were located on Otter Creek, Doe Run and Hill Creek.

The Coleman or Doe Run Mill (now the site of Doe Run Inn) was built around 1800. Garnettsville also had a number of mills, including Overton’s and Grable’s mills. The Van Meter Mill was farther upstream. Overton apparently built the first flour mill on Otter Creek sometime before 1813, and a town known as Plain Dealing grew up around it. The Overton Mill in Garnettsville was a saw and gristmill. The record is not clear whether these mills were one and the same.

Grable’s Mill was in existence as early as 1805. There was also a Crabb’s Mill near Garnettsville as early as 1804. Samuel Sterrett in Garnettsville later built another mill. The foundations of two of the Garnettsville mills are still visible and are presently within the Fort Knox reservation. David Brandenburg, the son of Solomon Brandenburg, for whom the Meade county seat is named, also built a mill in 1813 at what later became Grahamton.

Most of these early mills were gristmills, but probably the most famous and successful of all was the textile mill at Grahamton. The Grahamton Manufacturing Co., which built the mill in 1836 or 1837, was a Louisville-based firm, which was established in 1829. The mill was one of the earliest textile mills in Kentucky and the first one to be established west of the mountains.

The first dam and millrace were built of wood but replaced by stone in the early 1850s. At first, only a textile mill was built, but in 1865, a larger stone flour mill was erected. It operated for a few years, until the business declined, and it was converted to a warehouse. The mill produced a variety of goods, including cotton and wool yarns, linens, cottonades, jeans and a special cloth known as Otter Creek Stripe. During the Mexican War, the mill supplied canvas for Army tents. Cotton grain sacks were made from the 1860s up to the time the mill was taken over by the McCord Co. and converted exclusively to a spinning mill.

A town sprang up around the mill, and the townsfolk were longtime employees of the company. Also associated with Grahamton was Rock Haven, which acted as a wharf and shipping point on the Ohio River for the textile goods. Only ruins remain of the original mills. Camp Carlson, an Army recreational area, is now located in the vicinity of this extinct community.

Construction of the Louisville and Nashville Turnpike began in 1837, and by 1849, the macadamized road reached the Kentucky state line 108 miles to the south. The turnpike was meant as a thoroughfare for farmers and businessmen from Louisville to the Kentucky-Tennessee state line. The turnpike became a popular stagecoach route and allowed travelers from Louisville to reach Nashville in three days.

HISTORIC BRIDGE TOURS AVAILABLE ON FORT KNOX

Famous travelers of the road include writer Bayard Taylor and Swedish singer Jenny Lind. Use of the road for products and goods traveling between Louisville and Nashville diminished after 1859, when the Louisville and Nashville Railroad (located east of Fort Knox) was constructed. Today, an asphalt surface covers the underlying limestone macadamized road, and the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Knox welcomes visitors to the “Bridges to the Past” walking tour along a preserved portion of the historic turnpike.

The trail is approximately 1 mile south of West Point, Kentucky, on U.S. Route 31W or 8 miles north of Fort Knox’s main gate on U.S. Route 31W. Notable features on the walk include three limestone arch bridges that are more than 150 years old. These limestone bridges are among the oldest standing in Kentucky.

Small, rural settlements in the Fort Knox area were numerous. In addition to these small centers, a number of populated towns developed and flourished during the 19th and early 20th centuries. One of the earliest was established in 1831 and named Pittstown after the Pitts brothers, its founders. The name later changed to Pitts Point. The town was at the junction of the Salt and Rolling Fork rivers in Bullitt County. Its main function was as a docking point in the steamboat trade, as the Salt River was normally navigable only to a point just beyond the town. It acted as a major distribution center for the area.

By 1860, the town had grown to a population of 300, including physicians, carpenters, hotel proprietors, bakers, saddle and harness makers, a fish dealer, a minister, a blacksmith, masons and builders, and schoolteachers. As the steamboat trade declined, particularly with the coming of the railroad in 1859, Pitts Point began to wane in importance, and by 1874, its population had dwindled to less than 100. The Army purchased it around 1947 and at that time, it was virtually a ghost town. Several cemeteries are the only remnants from that community.

Another established town was called Stithton. The Stith Family, for whom the town was named, moved into the area in 1859 presumably from Stith Valley, in Meade County. Prior to their entry, there was probably already a small settlement known as St. Patrick’s. A Catholic church was built there in 1831. The church was later replaced by another structure built in 1899, which is now the post chapel.

Stithton was in Hardin County in what is now the southeastern portion of the Fort Knox cantonment area. It served as a major center for goods and services for all the small farming communities nearby, including Mill Creek, Easy Gap, Steel’s Crossroads and probably some of the adjacent Meade County settlements. Stithton was a stagecoach stop in its early years and later was traversed by the L&N (Louisville and Nashville) Turnpike, which was built in 1829 to 1835 and connected the town of Elizabethtown and West Point. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad also ran through the town.

Between Stithton and Tip Top, there was a large gooseberry farm. The Army purchased Stithton in 1918. A “New Stithton” sprang up nearby, but it too was purchased when the Army post was expanded in 1942. Documentary sources have chronicled the destruction of nearly all the buildings associated with Stithton to make way for Army construction in the area. The post chapel is the only recognizable building from the Stithton of 1918.

KENTUCKY SETTLERS JOIN BOTH NORTHERN AND CONFEDERATE FORCES

Most of the important settlements in the Fort Knox area were established before the Civil War. At the start of the war, the Kentucky legislature voted to remain neutral the state supplied more than 90,000 men to the Union Army and more than 30,000 troops for the Confederate cause, although citizens in the Fort Knox area were nearly equally divided between Union and Confederate sympathies.

Throughout the war, Union forces controlled the area, occupying Fort Duffield above West Point at different times during the conflict. Fort Duffield was on what was known as Muldraugh or Pearman Hill on a strategic point overlooking the confluence of the Salt and Ohio rivers and the L&N Turnpike, the main road into Louisville. By November 1861, the 9th Michigan Infantry had begun constructing breastworks and fortifications atop the hill, while the 37th Indiana Infantry camped below the hill. Regular use of the fort ended in 1862, and it was used irregularly throughout the rest of the conflict.

In August 1862, the Confederate Army, under Gens. Braxton Bragg and Kirby Smith, led an offensive to Kentucky. Many thought they would attempt to take the city of Louisville and possibly drive into northern soil. Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s Union forces, on the march from Tennessee and Alabama, hurried in the direction of Louisville for its defenses. The Union troops moved through the area along the L&N Turnpike, passing through present-day Fort Knox. Bragg’s victory at Munfordville on Sept. 17, 1862, proved costly as it allowed Buell to gain ground on the Confederates. Bragg moved his Army in the direction of Bardstown, allowing Buell to arrive in Louisville ahead of the Confederates in late September. The two armies finally battled at Perryville, Kentucky, on Oct. 8.

In late December 1862, John Hunt Morgan and Confederate forces besieged two nearby Union garrisons guarding two railroad trestles on Muldraugh Hill. Both trestles were destroyed, and more than 600 federal troops were captured as a result of the raids. In this same raid, Morgan captured Elizabethtown after a brief battle. Morgan made a lightning-fast move across the area again in 1863. His route took him across the Rolling Fork River to an overnight camp at Garnettsville before moving on to Brandenburg. From there, he ferried his troops across the river and led them on an extended raid across southeast Indiana into Ohio.

During the war, guerilla warfare plagued the area. Under such guerilla leaders as Ben Wigginton, numerous attacks were made on area communities with citizens or businesses loyal to the Union. Other bands sought to represent the Northern cause, but in either case, most simply were bandits who preyed on the local populace.

AREA PROSPERITY REACHES PEAK IN 1850S

The Fort Knox area population and economic diversity increased primarily during the first half of the 19th century. By the 1850s, the area had probably reached its peak in prosperity. Subsequent years saw the beginning of a decline, which was clearly evident by the late 19th century. For instance, by 1890, Hardin County was classed as a pauper county, because it spent more than $9,000 more on services than it collected in revenues. Land also carried a low assessment and much of it was too exhausted for cultivation.

A number of factors contributed to this decline. At least part of the decline was probably due to the limitations the natural setting prescribed on economic activity. Much of the Bullitt County and some of the Hardin County portions of the post are characterized by a highly dissected topography with relatively little arable land. Virtually all of Meade County and most of the remaining Hardin County portions of the fort are of karstic topography, characterized by underground drainage, moderate to severe erosion hazard under cultivation and usually only moderate potential yield.

The best areas from an agricultural standpoint are in the broad floodplains of the Ohio, Salt and Rolling Fork rivers, along with the limited floodplain areas in some of the smaller stream valleys. These areas are small compared to the entire post.

Added to the limited agricultural potential is the lack of good mineral deposits or other resources suitable for industry. Thus, large numbers went west from 1855 to 1880 in pursuit of new opportunities.

The decline was also attributable to outside influences. For instance, it has been noted that the production of salt became unprofitable when steamboat transportation made the importation of salt less expensive. Pitts Point thrived until the railroad was built and precluded the need for river transport. Although the Civil War did not have a significant, direct impact on the area, the effect of the war and reconstruction did have a dramatic, albeit indirect, impact on the economy of the area and Kentucky in general. Additionally, a variety of factors encouraged the growth of Louisville and Elizabethtown at the expense of smaller towns.

By the time the Army began land acquisition in the early 20th century, only Stithton and West Point were moderately prosperous. Pitts Point declined to a rural hamlet Garnettsville and Grahamton never grew out of the small-town phase and development in Bullitt County was suppressed by the growth of Louisville. Vine Grove, which was established in 1850 and moved to its present location in 1865, was growing, but it leveled off into the small town it remains today.

PROSPERITY RETURNS WITH MILITARY PRESENCE

In late September and early October 1903, a noteworthy event took place at West Point and the surrounding area.

Military troops came to the area to engage in mock battles. Large-scale military exercises at Fort Riley, Kansas, proved successful the previous year. The positive outcome paved the way for new military maneuvers at West Point. Army regulars from the Department of the Lakes and National Guard troops from Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin numbered 13,000 strong and pitched their tent city in West Point.

Not since the Civil War had so many Soldiers been gathered at that place. They named their temporary home Camp Young. It was named after the Army’s first chief of staff, Samuel Baldwin Marks Young, a Union veteran of the Civil War.

Soldiers present for the war games were divided into two opposing forces. A fictional conflict was scripted that pitted the Blue Army, stationed on the Ohio River at Louisville, against the Brown Army, based along the Tennessee River in Nashville, Tennessee. The scenario found the Brown Army near Louisville, where they had arrived after a successful campaign. Now, with the Blue Army recently reinforced and on the offensive, mock battles were carried out under the supervision of umpires. The success of the maneuvers prompted Army officials to consider making the location a permanent installation, but it would be another 15 years before that consideration became reality.


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